The “name” is a reference to Jesus Christ (vs. 10). This usage connotes identity and authority. Acts 4:12 not only identifies Jesus Christ as the sole agent of salvation, but is also explicit in revealing that Jesus is the means of salvation for all humanity. The theme of the universality of salvation grows throughout the Book of Acts and is affirmed by the Epistles. It climaxes in the Book of Revelation with a final thrust of global evangelism. Acts 4:12 sheds light on missiology and in particular how it relates to the end-time proclamation of the gospel.
The Significance of Imperative
In Acts 4:12, the word for “be saved” carries a rich meaning. First, it is in passive form, emphasizing that humans do not cause their own salvation. It is something done for them. Second, it is in a form that means that salvation has the certainty of a definite, completed act. Something else that is noteworthy in this verse is the word before “be saved,” which means “must; it is necessary.” The author could have easily said, “by which we can be saved,” or “by which we might be saved.” The use of must is likely a deliberate insertion to denote special significance.
J. Bradley Chance notes that “Luke regularly uses [the Greek word for ‘must/be necessary’] to denote divine necessity most especially with reference to events that happen on the plane of history so that the purposes of God can be accomplished.”2 Divine necessity is a term used also in the context of the existence of God as causally, logically, and metaphysically absolutely necessary. In this case, however, it is used not ontologically but to express the fulfillment of God’s purpose in history. Out of the 40 times Luke uses the verb for “must/be necessary” in various tenses, at least 34 of them carry this divine necessity meaning. In Acts 4:12, Luke connects the term “must/be necessary” to salvation. Close examination of its use to denote divine necessity throughout the New Testament reveals that it is almost always linked to God’s salvific purposes. When it appears, it serves to not only highlight that something is explicitly part of God’s plan, but in particular, it most often signifies that it is part of God’s plan of salvation.
Luke’s first use of this term is after Jesus’ visit to the Temple at age 12 during the Feast of Passover. Upon being discovered by Mary and Joseph, Jesus says, “‘Did you not know that I must be about My Father’s business?’” (Luke 2:49, NKJV). In using “must be,” Luke reveals that Jesus’ delay at the Temple fulfills a greater purpose in a salvation metanarrative. It is the primary clue that Jesus is not referring to Joseph and His carpentry business but also to His heavenly Father, with whom He is united in a work that transcends the mundane. The same theme is revealed in other uses of this word. For example, in Luke 4:43, Jesus says, “‘I must preach the kingdom of God to the other cities also, because for this purpose I have been sent’” (NKJV). In Luke 24:7, Jesus says, “‘The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again’” (NKJV). The use of “must be” confirms that the activity referred to in these passages is part of a God-ordained plan of salvation rather than incidental happenings.
Although Luke employed the word for “must be” more than any other New Testament writer, he was not the only biblical author to employ it. The Apostle John used it several times. John 3:14 reads, “‘As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up.’” Here John stresses that the crucifixion of Jesus is a necessary element of the divine plan of salvation.
Divine Necessity Fulfilled by Christ’s Followers
The use of “must be” as a rhetorical device to signify God’s plan of salvation is not limited to Christ’s life on earth. As already seen in Acts 4:12, Luke employed it after Christ’s ascension. In Acts 23:11, Luke uses it in relation to Paul’s work: “The Lord stood at his side and said, ‘Take courage; for as you have solemnly witnessed to My cause at Jerusalem, so you must witness at Rome also.’” In Acts 27:24, Paul describes the angel of the God appearing to him, saying, “‘Do not be afraid, Paul; you must stand before Caesar; and behold, God has granted you all those who are sailing with you.’”
Here we see that divine necessity is used in reference to the mission of Christ through His followers. This shows that the continuing activity of the Christian Church is related to God’s work in and through Jesus Christ. God’s plan continues to be realized through divine necessity in the obedient witness of the body of Christ throughout the history of the Christian Church.
Though divine necessity in Acts 4:12 is used in terms of salvation, most of the time it is used with reference to events occurring in the lives of God’s servants for the salvific purposes of others. Prior to His ascension, Christ declared, “‘This gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come’” (Matt. 24:14, NKJV). This prophecy of Jesus is a prediction of how God’s salvific purposes will unfold up until the end of the world. The gospel will be preached to the whole world. The Book of Revelation adds further detail on God’s purposes in extending salvation as present world history approaches its climax in the appearing of Jesus at His second advent.
Divine Necessity in Revelation
Divine necessity also emerges in the apocalyptic commission of Revelation 10:11: “‘You must prophesy again concerning many peoples and nations and tongues and kings.’” This commission contains the verb must. The use of the Greek word carries the same significance of divine necessity that Acts 4:12 contains. Robert Mounce notes that there is a “divine compulsion in the charge.”3 The proclamation of God’s Word is part of God’s salvific purposes, and it is global in scope. “It is the final act in the great drama of God’s creative and redemptive activity. . . . [John’s] prophecy is the culmination of all previous prophecies in that it leads to the final destruction of evil and the inauguration of the eternal state.”4
There is an overarching connection between the declaration of Acts 4:12 with the eschatological preaching of Revelation 10:11. The preaching of the gospel as pictured in Acts and Revelation fulfills an intentional divine plan of salvation—that is, to exalt the name of Jesus on a universal scale. This is a task introduced by Jesus and continued throughout history in and through the church.
The context of the divine necessity (“must”) of Revelation is the eating of an opened little book. John’s vision parallels the one experienced by the prophet Daniel (see Daniel 12:4-7) with one major difference. Daniel is told to seal up his prophecy in a book until the time of the end, while John sees a book now opened and is told to consume it. “I took the little book out of the angel’s hand and ate it, and it was in my mouth sweet as honey; and when I had eaten it, my stomach was made bitter. And they said to me, ‘You must prophesy again concerning many peoples and nations and tongues and kings’” (Rev. 10:10, 11).
This narrative falls between the sixth and seventh trumpets of Revelation, the seventh being the final victory of God. There are various interpretations as to the exact timing of this event and what the little book is. Common understandings regarding the identity of the little book include the Gospel, a specific instruction to John, the Book of Daniel, or the Word of God in general.
One understanding using the historicist method of prophetic interpretation is that Revelation 10 is descriptive of events toward the end of the 18th into the mid-19th century. Many Christians at this time placed a renewed emphasis on the time prophecies of Daniel, becoming convinced that they had arrived at the time of the end—the final era of earth’s history. An idea was popularized that, based on the 2,300-day prophecy of Daniel 8:14, Christ would return on October 22, 1844. It attracted great interest from various denominations, many of whom drew inspiration from the Baptist preacher William Miller. An estimated one million hearers embraced Miller’s preaching. The bitter days following the failed prediction are now known as the Great Disappointment. In this case, the “eating” of the Book of Daniel had sparked a sweet excitement that turned into a bitter experience.
Two unique elements characterized this movement. First, it had a heterogeneous composition of various Christian traditions. Second, it experienced a crisis on the very thing that united them: the expectation of the Second Advent. These unique circumstances compelled the movement toward a fresh and rigorous search for truth that was free from the heavy influence of any one particular tradition. Among the various reactions was the determination never again to rely on unbiblical assumptions. Thus, a foundation was laid for a movement that epitomized the Protestant principle of holding the Bible as the sole rule of faith and practice.
The Word of God in Christian Witness
Both in his Gospel and in Revelation, John recognized Jesus Christ as the living word of God. Consuming and digesting the word has the eucharistic effect of purifying, nourishing, giving life, and identifying with Christ and His mission. According to Jesus, the communion bread is a symbol of His bodily sacrifice (Luke 22:19). In his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul stated that the breaking of the bread in communion “proclaim[s] the Lord’s death until He comes” (1 Cor. 11:26), which is the essence of the gospel. Paul also identified the transformed life of the believer as a public proclamation of the gospel. Belief in Christ removes the veil covering the meaning of the word of God when it is read (2 Cor. 3:15). This results in the believer’s life becoming a living letter from Christ written by the Spirit of God on human hearts beholding the glory of God (vss. 3, 18). Based on these verses, feasting on the word of God, whether in the breaking of bread or through Bible study, has a gospel preaching effect.
Whereas divine necessity begins with God’s initiative, it does not finish with human action. Though humans are in the place to respond to God’s purpose, and under moral obligation to do so, they do not take control of it. Whether the divine necessity is used in terms of being born again, salvation, or responding to a call to action, humans are acting only in cooperation with God’s intent. God is involved in His purpose until it is accomplished. In Acts 4:12, salvation is initiated and completed by God in the lives of the respondents. The apocalyptic commission in Revelation 10:11 is given to a human representative, while its parallel in 14:6 portrays the gospel as carried by a heavenly envoy. It is God who initiates the spreading of the gospel, and He will see it through until it meets the objective of covering the whole world.
John Stott noted, “Authentic Christian theology has an ultimately missiological purpose.”5 Jesus stated, “‘I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to Myself’” (John 12:32). In his letter to the Romans, Paul affirmed that it is God’s goodness that leads to repentance (Rom. 2:4). This suggests that theology and mission are inextricably linked. Purity in one leads to success in the other.
As Jesus is the Word of God personified and a complete revelation of God’s character, John the Revelator is invited to model Jesus through feasting on words from God, symbolized by the eating of the little book. The words are digested and internalized by John. He then hears God’s voice call him to bear witness. (The pronoun they in Revelation 10:11 can be seen as a divine plurality.) Throughout the narrative, the apostle displays humble submission, trust, and a willingness to participate in God’s activity. This attitude allows God’s word and calling to take effect in His life.
As Jesus Christ is presented before the world in the life of His followers, He attracts others to Himself (John 12:32). His love breaks down prejudice and brings others into a salvific relationship with Him. Revealing the character of God is thus the thrust behind missiology. Success in meeting the universal witness mandate is based on the response to the call to consume the Word of God and hear His voice. The internalization of the Word of God depicts Jesus as a witness both in the individual and corporate body. Christian mission thus lies in ever listening to, trusting, and cooperating with the divine will.
Divine Necessity and the Seventh-day Adventist Church
An essential characteristic of participants of the Revelation commission includes a position to preach the gospel to the whole world. The gospel “must” be spread to a wide-ranging global audience prior to the Second Coming. If the events surrounding the late 18th and mid-19th century are a fulfillment of Revelation 10, then these developments must have given rise to an evangelistic impetus to heed the call to spread the gospel globally.
The movement that arose as a response to deeper study of the Word of God, in particular the Book of Daniel, and experienced the bitterness described in Revelation 10:9, 10 survived as the Seventh-day Adventist Church. They became convinced that they had an obligation to spread the gospel to all the world in preparation for the second coming of Jesus. An examination of global Adventist witness will determine whether its rise is in accordance with the divine necessity of Revelation 10:11 to spread the gospel universally. The ability of Adventists to engage people of other religious and philosophical persuasions will further validate their existence and purpose.
Islam. Adventists and Muslims share convictions of submission to God, morality, clean diet, abstinence, giving of a fixed portion of income, and end-time judgment. Even the Sabbath is mentioned in the Qur’an as an example for everyone.6 Most important, though, Adventist eschatology is not antagonistic toward Muslim countries since it attaches a symbolic meaning to geography mentioned in end-time prophecy.
Indeed, one prominent sheikh made the following challenge: “Just like you Adventists believe, we Muslims also believe that Jesus’ second coming will bring peace, justice, and equality to the whole world. It is [the] greatest cataclysmic event to take place in this world. You Adventists have this truth as a nuclear power energy, but you are keeping it like a light bulb in your hand.”7
Another prominent sheikh claims to have had a dream that Adventists are the “true people of the Book”—a group of Bible-believing people who are faithful to God and accounted as righteous.8 In this dream he claims it was revealed to him that he must spend the rest of his life bringing an awareness of the Adventist movement to the Islamic world. He challenged, “Seventh-day Adventists have a responsibility before God to share your message with all the world, and if you don’t you will be judged by God.”9
These views and similar ones are expressed by several different Islamic leaders in various parts of the world. Even though they cannot be viewed as representative of the entire Muslim world, they do reveal a growing appreciation of Adventist Christians among Islam. This presents exceptional opportunities to build bridges to Christ with people of Islam.
Adventists share a similar history with the Bahá’í faith, which arose out of Shia Islam around the same as Adventism. Using the historicist method of interpretation, both faiths recognize 1844 as a significant year since it is believed by them to be the end of the 2,300-day prophecy of Daniel 8:13, 14. The Bahá’í faith holds that Miller’s interpretation of signs and dates of the coming of Jesus were, for the most part, correct. This commonality places Adventists in an especially favorable position in their Christian witness to members of the Bahá’í faith.
Judaism. One hindrance to Jewish-Christian dialogue is the perception that Christians have no regard for the law. Christianity exacerbated its rift with Judaism by failing to observe the Sabbath and food laws.10 Early Christians did not see themselves as beginning a religion different from Judaism but viewed Christianity as a natural expansion of it.
Adventists uphold the Ten Commandments, including the fourth commandment, which says to keep the seventh day holy as the Sabbath. The appreciation of the Sabbath is an aspect of faith generally overlooked during the Protestant Reformation’s push to return to pure biblical faith and practice. The Sabbath offers a rich starting point for discussing the relationship between Judaism and Christianity.
Furthermore, Adventists draw meaning from the ceremonial regulations of the Old Testament and sanctuary services as aids to understanding God’s grace and salvation. They have an appreciation of the Old Testament, its principles, and the observance of the dietary restrictions of clean meats. Adventists situated as they are between Judaism and majority Christianity can play an important role in strengthening Jewish-Christian relations and discussions about Jesus.
Secularism. The perception of God as a cruel tyrant is a primary reason that secularists are turned away from Him. Whether one reads, Why I Am Not a Christian by Bertrand Russell or Why I Am an Agnostic by Robert Ingersoll, they will see that the concept of people burning in hell forever is a major reason for their rejection of Him. As Feuerbach puts it, “To love, Hell is a horror; to reason, an absurdity.”11
In the wake of recent sexual-abuse scandals in the Roman Catholic Church, the neo-atheist Richard Dawkins has asserted that the doctrine of hell is a far worse form of abuse than sexual abuse. It is interesting to note that Dawkins does not say that teaching children unscientific material about the existence of God is abusive. It appears that the issue of who God is aggravates Dawkins more than whether He exists in the first place.
The underlying reasons that people reject God are not based on science but most often on a reaction to a perceived evil character. According to LifeWay Research, 73 percent of unchurched 20- to 29-year-old Americans consider themselves “spiritual.”12 The postmodern reaction to the existential angst created by atheism is to believe in some sort of a higher power. Contrary to Nietzsche’s assertion that God is dead, He is not dead in the minds of the unchurched but is growing in popularity as a loving higher power that works for the good of a universe that is free of hell fire. Like the Apostle Paul at Mars Hill, Adventists declare this “‘“unknown god”’” (Acts 17:23) to people ignorant of Him.
The prominent Christian pastor Rob Bell bravely addresses the “misguided and toxic” issue of hell in his book, Love Wins: A Book About Heaven, Hell, and the Fate of Every Person Who Ever Lived.13 Bell claims that the teaching of an eternal conscious torment, “ultimately subverts the contagious spread of Jesus’ message of love, peace, forgiveness and joy that our world desperately needs to hear.”14 Unfortunately, in his attempt to exonerate the character of God, Bell rationalizes away biblical passages on hell.15
The Adventist movement maintains that the doctrine of hell crept into Christianity from pagan influences and has grossly marred the name of Christ and hampered Christian witness. The Adventist view on human nature and destiny does away with the common concept of hell without departing from a literal interpretation of the Bible. Adventist theology reveals a biblically authentic and attractive picture of God.
Furthermore, like secularists, Adventists promote the separation of church and state, preserving religious freedom for all people. The freedom of religion gave the nourishment for the Great Awakenings and consequently the rise of the Advent movement itself. For more than 100 years, the Seventh-day Adventist Church has been an active advocate for freedom of religion. It sustains the oldest organization defending and promoting religious freedom that is non-sectarian and universal. This is a witness of the freedom Christianity brings to conscience, making Christ more attractive to secular society.
The Adventist Great Controversy worldview provides a rational reconciliation of the sovereignty of God, His character of love, and the present existence of evil. It explains when evil arose, the just and loving cosmic activity of God, and how evil will ultimately be abolished.
Reason can legitimately deal only with objects of phenomenal experience. Spiritual reality must appear in the physical world in order to appeal to reason. The transformed lives of believers are a perceptible manifestation of God that consequently attracts others to Him. The practical and palpable logic of Adventist theology combined with a visible manifestation of the character of a loving God engages diverse minds and presents a powerful argument for the existence of a loving and dependable God. Reason and experience link to present a powerful argument for the existence of God and the veracity of the biblical narrative.
Hinduism and Buddhism. The Hindu and Buddhist belief in reincarnation brings fears of regression similar to the fear of hell. Through the cycle of samsara, one could be born in a number of undesirable states, including the “Denizens of Hell.” Buddhists have a vivid imagination of suffering, including this realm. “This vision of hell is not far from the Western visions . . . the hot, wicked place of endless torture.”16
The Adventist understanding of hell not only depicts a more positive image of the Christian God but also brings welcome relief to anyone plagued by fears of intense suffering and torment. Ethnic religious folklore practiced in various forms around the world is mostly based on the fear and appeasement of evil spirits. The Adventist understanding of the state of the dead and the protection found in Jesus offers the peace and freedom from fear that is so desperately sought for.
The Adventist movement may be seen as more or less adhering to the Five Precepts or ethical requirements for living a basically good life of Buddhism and Taoism: Do not destroy life; do not steal, do not commit sexual misconduct, do not lie, do not take intoxicating drinks. The first precept of not destroying life leads many Buddhists to vegetarianism. Although Adventists do not practice extreme ahimsa, they do promote vegetarianism, primarily for health reasons. The avoidance of the taking of life resonates with Hindus, Buddhists, and Jainists. An often overlooked sentiment is that of one of the founders of the Adventist movement, Ellen White, who advocated vegetarianism not only for reasons of physical and mental health, but for compassion as well.17 Compassionate living is integral to Buddhism, and Buddhists appreciate others who advocate it.
The fifth Buddhist precept prohibiting intoxicants can also include caffeine, tobacco, and other drugs that disturb mindful practice and consciousness. Like Buddhists, Adventists abstain from alcohol, tobacco, and recreational drugs, and advise against caffeine. They also promote a wholistic lifestyle of spiritual, mental, and physical health.
Adventists cease material pursuits and experience a special day of spiritual rejuvenation every seventh day of the week. They identify the Sabbath as being instituted during Creation week for all of humanity to preserve their relationship with God. In this view the Sabbath is a weekly “Earth Day” that appreciates nature and celebrates its Creator. The Adventist wholistic approach to health and appreciation of Creation provides a natural connection to Eastern religions and the New Age.
Witness Through Health Ministry
The Apostle Peter’s testimony in Acts 4 came soon after the healing of a lame man. The Disciples’ witness was often accompanied by healings. When Jesus sent out the 70 disciples, He gave them the mandate to “‘Heal the sick there, and say to them, “The kingdom of God has come near to you”’” (Luke 10:9 NKJV).The Book of Acts records the continuation of the healing ministry of the church.
A healing experience captures the attention of the healed, often strengthening faith in God. This is not surprising when one considers the high value of good health. An acute event in one’s wellbeing, whether positive or negative, cannot go unnoticed. Peter’s testimony in Acts 3 and 4 reveals the biblical healing paradigm of meeting a physical need without neglect to the spiritual. The compassion shown was complete in demonstrating the divine interest in the whole person. In Acts 3, the healing of the lame man led to his familiarization with the community of Jesus, culminating in the “no other name” declaration of Acts 4:12.
The people group of Revelation 10:11 is given the mandate to preach the gospel globally. Undoubtedly, a health message would place them in a favorable position to lead others to Jesus. According to the biblical healing paradigm, this gift of healing provides a great advantage in connecting people with Christ. A person who has been helped physically is often more willing to consider the value of spiritual things.
Through the teaching ministry of Ellen G. White, one of the founders of the Adventist Church, Adventists have been given advanced health knowledge beyond 19th-century scientific knowledge. Probability research into White making health statements that are now scientifically verifiable reveals that it is astronomically against random chance.18 “It is impossible to exclude inspiration from Ellen White’s writings.”19
This inspiration points to a supernatural origin and divine interposition. Studies today show that Seventh-day Adventists are among the healthiest and longest-lived people in the world.20 Research articles flowing from the Adventist Health Study have broken ground for scientific understanding in areas such as vegetarianism, cancer prevention, coronary artery disease risk factors, and others.21 This, along with a wide-reaching system of hospitals and medical training institutions, has had significant impact on the world’s health care.
The personal and relational aspect of Adventist health ministry is a natural builder of trust, opening a person to spiritual influence. Gary Martin, the managing director of Living Valley Springs, makes the following observation: “Most people that come here have a secular background. By the time they leave, to be conservative, I’d say that 80 percent make a decision for Christ at some level. We don’t push religion, but at first guests shun any hint of it. By the end of their stay, they ask for us to pray with them at each treatment. I can name at least forty off the top of my head that have been baptized. They are the ones that I’m aware of, but I know there are a lot more.”22
The effectiveness and profound simplicity of the Adventist health message not only point to its divine origins but also make it palatable to a global audience. Optimal health is a universal desire. Adventists continue to expand their Christian witness to people of all backgrounds through the entering wedge of their health message.
The World Council of Churches recognizes the Adventist Church as “probably the most widespread Protestant denomination, with work in over 200 countries.”23 While growth rates and number of adherents alone are not an indication of truth, they do affirm one of the characteristics of God’s last-day people, namely, participating in the global spread of the gospel. The Adventist movement’s well-positioned status in Christian witness in a diverse world is in accordance with this. This challenges Adventists to engage other cultures without fear of association with other faith groups.
The Seventh-day Adventist movement identifies with the divine necessity of Acts 4:12 and Revelation 10:11 through its prophetic uprising and its positioning in fulfilling the salvific purposes of God in the end-time thrust of spreading the gospel to the whole world. Its emphasis on biblical purity has given rise to doctrines and practices that resonate with remnants of truth extant in the distorted belief systems of multiple different worldviews. This positions Adventists on the forefront of Christian witness. Combined with the revelation of Christ in the lives of believers, it attracts others to Him. This is a challenge for Adventists to fulfill the purpose of the global proclamation of Jesus by modeling Him with pronounced clarity through a close connection with His word.
At the time he wrote this article, Emanuel Millen, M.Div., was a teaching pastor at Forest Lake Church, Orlando, Florida. He is now in transition to serve in ministry in Australia.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture quotations in this article are quoted from the New American Standard Bible.
2. J. Bradley Chance, Acts, Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary (Macon, Ga.: Smyth & Helwys, 2007), p. 348.
3. Robert H. Mounce, The Book of Revelation (Grand Rapids, Mich.: W. B. Eerdmans, 1998), p. 211.
5. John R. W. Stott, “Theology: A Multidimensional Discipline,” in Donald M. Lewis, Alister E. McGrath, and J. I. Packer, eds., Doing Theology for the People of God: Studies in Honor of J. I. Packer (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1996), p. 14.
6. Qu’ran 2:65-66.
7. Source withheld by request.
8. Qu’ran 3:113-115.
9. Source withheld by request.
10. Stanley E. Porter and Brook W. R. Pearson, Christian-Jewish Relations Through the Centuries (New York: T & T Clark International, 2004), p. 21.
11. Ludwig Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity, Marian Evans, trans. (London: J. Chapman, 1854), p. 255.
12. Ed Stetzer, Richie Stanley, and Jason Hayes, Lost and Found: The Younger Unchurched and the Churches That Reach Them (Nashville, Tenn.: B&H Pub. Group, 2009), p. 57.
13. Rob Bell, Love Wins: A Book About Heaven, Hell, and the Fate of Every Person Who Ever Lived (New York: HarperOne, 2011).
14. Ibid., p. viii.
15. See Emanuel Millen, “Book Review: Love Wins: A Book About Heaven, Hell, and the Fate of Every Person Who Ever Lived,” Ministry (July 2011).
16. Jacky Sack, The Everything Buddhism Book (Avon, Mass.: Adams Media, 2003), p. 98.
17. The Ministry of Healing, pp. 315, 316.
18. Don McMahon, Acquired or Inspired? (Melbourne, Australia: Signs Publ. Co., 2005), p. 141.
19. Ibid., p. 142.
20. Dan Bluettner, “The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who’ve Lived the Longest,” National Geographic (November 2005), pp. 2-27.
21. Gary E. Fraser, Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease Studies of Seventh-Day Adventists and Other Vegetarians (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
22. Gary Martin, interview, September 27, 2011.
23. Http://www.oikoumene.org/en/member-churches/church-families/seventh-day-adventist-church.html. Accessed October 6, 2011.